Everything You Need To Know About ASD And VSD Closure Treatment

ASD closure is a procedure mostly performed in children in which an atrial septal defect (ASD) is closed. An ASD is a tiny hole in the heart and is located between the two upper chambers. VSD closure is a surgical procedure in which an venricular septal defect (VSD) is closed. Here, we will learn everything about ASD and VSD closures in children, such as what is ASD and VSD closure, what are the causes and symptoms that require ASD and VSD closures, how to prepare for ASD and VSD closure surgery, what are the complications for ASD and VSD closure surgery, who are the best doctors for ASD and VSD closure in India, and which are the top hospitals for ASD and VSD closures in India.

Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui

Review By Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui
Award-winning CEO of Marlin Medical Assistance Pvt. Ltd

Mar 4, 2024

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What is VSD and ASD Closure?

What is VSD and ASD Closure?

An atrial septal defect (ASD) closure is a procedure to close a hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart. ASD is a congenital condition, which is mostly present in newbo children. A ventricular septal defect or VSD closure is a procedure to close a hole located in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart. VSD is usually congenital in children. In case the hole is small, it might not cause any issue or need treatment. But if it is large, it may cause blood to leak in the wrong chambers of the heart. If the VSD remains large, most infants must undergo surgical closure at the age of 4-6 months. However, asymptomatic Atrial Septal Defects should be closed through surgery when the children have reached the age of 3 to 5 years. Most of these defects close on their own within the first three years of life, though they might persist into adulthood. Nearly 25% of adults may have a patent foramen ovale.

Types of VSD and ASD

Ostium primum atrial septal defect: A small hole in the lower portion of the atrial chamber in children can cause this defect and it is generally associated with other heart defects such as mitral and tricuspid valves. This problem might lead to Down’s syndrome.

Ostium Secundum atrial septal defect: This is the most common type of ASD in children and accounts for 6-10% of all congenital heart disorders. It develops in the centre of the atrium as a small abnormal opening in the septum.

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect: It occurs in the top portion of the atrial chamber and is also a rare condition in children.

Membranous Ventricular septal defect: This is a common type of VSD in children and makes up nearly 80% of cases. This defect happen in the upper part of the wall between the ventricles.

Muscular Ventricular septal defect: This accounts for around 20% of VSDs in infants. In this defect, there are generally more than one hole which is part of the defect.

Causes and Symptoms


  • Genetics
  • Environmental factors
  • Abnormal fetal development
  • Gender
  • Changes in DNA


  • Blue lips and body
  • Trouble eating, poor growth
  • Abnormal heartbeats, palpitation, stroke
  • Fast breathing, inability to exercise
  • Shortness of breath, fatigue


Examination: If VSD or ASD is present, the doctor can hear a whooshing sound (i.e., heart murmur) while listening to the heart with a stethoscope.

Bubble study: If a paediatric cardiologist wants to rule out a tiny hole, they may do a test known as a bubble study. The doctor injects sterile water having tiny microbubbles into the vein of the arm. The doctor will see how the bubbles flowing through the heart along with the blood. This test is generally done on older children and adults and could require sedation.

Echocardiogram: If a paediatric cardiologist suspects a child has VSD or VSD, the condition can be confirmed with an echocardiogram. Based on the size of VSD and its correct position, it will be seen on an echocardiogram.

Electrocardiogram: This diagnostic test uses several sensors attached to the chest skin to detect the electrical activity of the heart. That activity is recorded as a wave on a printout for the expert to review and interpret. The heart structure may change over time due to a VSD.

Chest or heart X-ray: When a VSD is big enough, the structure of the heart may slightly change. The change can be seen on heart X-rays. In certain cases, a substance can be injected into the blood which is easily visible on X-rays, which lets the doctor to see any unusual blood circulation indicating a VSD or other problems.

Computed tomography (CT) scan: A computer is used to process X-ray images into a 3-dimensional image of the inside of the heart. Like with a heart X-ray, a substance is injected that is visible on a CT scan.

Cardiac catheterization: In this procedure, a catheter device is used to see inside the heart. The device is inserted into a major blood vessel, which can help tell the size as well as location of any problems such as a VSD.

Preparation of Treatment

You need to prepare yourself before undergoing ASD/VSD closure surgery to get better results and avoid some of the possible complications. Tell the doctor if you are currently taking any medications. If you are taking SGLT2 medicine for diabetes, you should stop taking them around three days before the surgery. Don’t eat and drink for at least six hours before your surgery. Leave your jewellery at home before coming to the hospital for the procedure. Stay as calm as possible before surgery to avoid any stress that would otherwise interfere with the surgery.

ASD and VSD closure surgery is generally safe and effective. However, it may carry some risks in children depending on a number of factors such as age of the patient, pre-existing condition, etc. There may be an allergy to materials used during the surgery. Abnormal heart rhythm (also called arrhythmia) may occur after the procedure and might need separate surgery. In some cases, there can be bleeding, which may need a blood transfusion. Some individuals may experience damage or puncture in their heart tissue or veins. Infection of the incision or near the closure device is also common. In some rare cases, there can be kidney failure, stroke and transient ischemic attack.

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Best Doctors for ASD And VSD Closure Treatment

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Dr. Anil Bhan
41+ Yrs. Exp.MBBS, MS (General Surgery), MCh (Cardiothoracic and vascular surgery)Cardiovascular Surgeon
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Dr. Veena Bhat
36+ Yrs. Exp.MBBS, MD (Obstetrics and Gynaecology), Diploma (Gynaecological Endoscopic)Chairperson Emeritus
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Dr. Renu Raina Sehgal
20+ Yrs. Exp.MBBS, DNB (Obstetrics & Gynecology)Chief & Coordinator Operations - Obs & Gynae

Best Hospitals for ASD And VSD Closure Treatment

Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai
Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai
Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai

Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai Rao Saheb, Achutrao Patwardhan Marg, Four Bungalows, Andheri West, Mumbai – 400053.

Cost of the treatment

The average cost of VSD and ASD closure surgery in India is nearly $4800. However, VSD and ASD closure surgery cost in India can vary from person to person depending on a number of factors such as treatment approach used, age of the patient, facilities availed, type of the hospital, and experience of the surgeons. The cost of VSD and ASD closure surgery in India is much lower compared to many other countries across the world.


Recovery after VSD and ASD closure surgery

The doctor will tell you what to expect during recovery. They will ask you to limit physical activity for 2-3 weeks if you have surgical ASD closure. In case of transcatheter closure, you will be able to resume your normal activities in one week. You need to take medications to avert blood clots for nearly six months after the surgery. You may need to take some antibiotics in order to prevent infections, particularly when you are planning dental procedures within the first 5-6 months after the procedure. You should attend all follow-up appointments with a cardiologist or surgeon who will perform tests to make sure the procedure was effective. You have to pay special attention to your diet for speedy recovery.

Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui

Written by

Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui

Award-winning CEO of Marlin Medical Assistance Pvt. Ltd

Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui is an award-winning CEO of Marlin Medical Assistance Pvt. Ltd., a professionally managed medical tourism holding company and the active Director of Alshifa Healthcare Services Pvt. Ltd., a full-service medical tourism aggregation agency servicing JCI and NABH/ NABL accredited Hospitals across the country’s 5 locations.

In addition to Marlin, Alshifa also includes Media Group, which houses Arabic Medical Tourism e-Magazine healthandtour.com. The E-magazine “مجلة الصحة والسياحة” provides a wide scope of medical tourism information to healthcare travellers to find a safe, effective and cost-saving solution for their medical and healthcare needs. In addition to running E-Magazine, Dr. Mohammad Afzal also serves as Delhi-state coordinator in Foundation of Healthcare and Wellness Promotion focused on bringing India’s Healthcare closer to the world and smoothen world’s access to Indian Healthcare.

Frequently Asked Questions About ASD and VSD Closure

Recovery after the procedure generally takes 6 weeks. If there aren’t any other problems, the patient will be fully recovered and able to resume normal activities within some days after the surgery. Heart surgery may leave a permanent scar in the chest.

Several studies have found that patients less than 25 years of age experience normal life expectancy following closure of ASD and VSD. However, survival reduces significantly in age groups 25–41.

Open-heart surgery is considered the best for VSD. In some cases atrial and ventricular septal defect repair may be done using small cuts than that in traditional surgery. This approach is known as minimally invasive surgery. If the repair is carried out using a robot, it is called robot-assisted heart surgery.

Symptoms can vary over the course of an individual’s life. Research has revealed that ASD symptoms tend to peak nearly the ages of 2-3 years.
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