Table Of Index
What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer occurs when cells in the prostate gland begin to grow in an uncontrolled way. Prostate cancer is one of the common kind of cancers among men. It generally affects men in their 60s, but this cancer is now found in individuals of lower age group as well. The problems arising in the gland include non-cancerous enlargement, and cancer of the prostate. Prostate cancer grows gradually and remains confined to the organ initially. However, in some cases, growth may be rapid and can quickly spread to other organs. The risk factors may include family history, older age and obesity. Early diagnosis allows patients to opt for a range of treatment options, with better outcomes. Treating prostate cancer may require a team of experts from radiation, medical, uro-oncology who are trained to follow defined protocols of inteational standards.
Types of prostate cancer
Adenocarcinoma of the prostate: Adenocarcinomas occur in the cells of the lining and the tubes of the prostate gland. Gland cells produce prostate fluid. Adenocarcinomas is a common type of prostate cancer. Nearly every man with prostate cancer is affected with this type. There are two types of adenocarcinomas of the prostate - Acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate and Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
Transitional cell carcinoma: Transitional cell carcinoma in the prostate begins in the cells which line the tube carrying urine to the urethra. This kind of cancer generally begins in the bladder and then spreads to the prostate. However, it rarely starts in the prostate and could spread to the bladder entrance and adjacent tissues.
Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer starts in flat cells that cover the prostate. This cancer grows and spread faster than adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
Small cell prostate cancer: This type of cancer can be classed as a kind of neuroendocrine cancer. This cancer can grow more quickly compared to other types of prostate cancer.
Causes and Symptoms
The below-given diagnostic tests are used to detect prostate cancer:
Prostate-specific antigen test: Prostate-specific antigen is a type of protein secreated by the prostate gland. This test measures the level of the antigen in a men’s blood. The blood levels of PSA are increased in men with prostate cancer.
Transrectal magnetic resonance imaging: This test is done to determine whether the cancer has spread from the prostate to surrounding tissues. The test is also referred to as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.
Physical Examination: Doctor will assess medical history, past illness, health habits, and treatments. They will then do physical examination to check any lump or other signs of disease.
Transrectal ultrasound: This test is used to detect any abnormalities in the rectum and adjacent structures. The ultrasound probe is inserted in the rectum. The probe reflects sound waves from body tissues to form a sonogram of the prostate.
Digital rectal examination: In this, the doctor inserts a lubricated finger in the rectum and tries to feel the prostate via the rectal wall to find out abnormal areas or lumps.
Risk & Complications
Infertility: After prostate surgery, there are some chances that the patient can experience infertility. You should discuss more about the effects of surgery on fertility with your care team.
Altered bowel function: In some rare cases, there can be altered bowel function after surgery. In some locally advanced prostate cancer cases, the cancer may invade the rectum and the surgery could lead to rectal damage.
Sexual dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after prostate cancer treatment. This happens because the nerves and the blood vessels which control erection are very delicate, and any kind of trauma in the area may result in changes.
Urinary incontinence: During prostate cancer surgery, the bladder connected to the urethra at the site where the prostate was previously located. If sphincter at the bottom of the bladder is damaged in the surgery, some level of urinary incontinence and leakage might occur.
Preparation of Treatment
Exercise regularly: Do moderate-intensity exercise for 150 minutes each week, or more than 20 minutes daily.
Follow a nutritious diet: Although there is no specific diet to prevent cancer, good eating habits may improve the overall health. Consume vegetables, fruits and whole grains. You should avoid red meat and processed food.
Get prostate screening regularly: Ask the doctor how often you need to get screened depending on your risk factors.
Maintain a healthy weight: You need to ask your doctor how maintaining a healthy weight will be beneficial for you in preventing prostate cancer. If you need to shed some weight, do more exercise and cut the number of calories you consume each day
Quit smoking: Stop using tobacco products. In case you smoke, check with your doctor on a smoking cessation program to quit the habit.
Consult doctor about your increased risk of prostate cancer: People with a high risk of prostate cancer need to consult their doctor who may suggest medications or other treatments to lower the risk.
Best Doctors for Prostate Cancer Treatment
Best Hospitals for Prostate Cancer Treatment
Surgery: During surgery, the prostate gland and surrounding lymph nodes is removed to treat prostate cancer. A urologic oncologist or urologist will do surgery to remove the tumor from the gland or remove the complete gland. If the cancer has spread outside the prostate gland, systemic treatment may be chosen to kill the cancer cells. Various types of surgery are available, and it depends on the grade and stage of the caner, as well as the patient’s health condition.
Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy involves using high-energy x-rays or some other types of radiation to kill the cancer cells or prevent them from growing. A radiation therapy schedule includes specific number of treatments given over a duration of time. Different types of radiation therapies are available to choose from.
Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy for prostate cancer treatment uses drugs and other substances to identify and destroy specific cancer cells. This therapy causes less harm to normal cells compared to that in chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy uses the patient’s immune system to treat cancer. Immunotherapy treats the cancer by activating a person's immune system enabling it to recognize as well as destroy prostate cancer cells.
Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy for prostate cancer treatment helps to block the action of certain hormones that triggers growth of cancer cells. Surgery, drugs, and other hormones are used for reducing the level of male hormones or completely block them from working.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs to stop the growth of prostate cancer cells by destroying the cells or stopping them from growing.
Cost of the treatment
The cost of prostate cancer treatment in India may range from $5413 to $9022. Prostate cancer treatment cost in India may vary at different cities and different hospitals. Prostate cancer treatment cost in India is much lower than that in several other countries such as the UK, US, UAE and Turkey. Low cost of prostate cancer treatment in India is a major reason for a large number of inteational patients traveling to the country to seek the treatment. Other reasons include the best prostate cancer treatment hospitals in India and top cancer doctors.
Recovery after prostate cancer treatment
Most individuals can resume normal activities after nearly eight weeks after prostate cancer surgery. Recovery is faster in case of a robotic prostatectomy. People may retu to normal activities in 4-6 weeks after a robotic prostatectomy. However, the recovery will depend on the type of surgery, the patient’s health history and any other conditions. You should follow all the instructions given by your doctor for a successful recovery after prostate cancer surgery. Follow the diet suggested by the doctor and take all the prescribed medications on time. Do maintain hygiene to prevent infection and take care of the wound at the site of surgery. You may experience some pain after prostate surgery, so you should take the pain relief medicines as advised by the doctor. Have proper rest and never exert yourself. After some days, you can slowly increase your activities.
Award-winning CEO of Marlin Medical Assistance Pvt. Ltd
Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui is an award-winning CEO of Marlin Medical Assistance Pvt. Ltd., a professionally managed medical tourism holding company and the active Director of Alshifa Healthcare Services Pvt. Ltd., a full-service medical tourism aggregation agency servicing JCI and NABH/ NABL accredited Hospitals across the country’s 5 locations.
In addition to Marlin, Alshifa also includes Media Group, which houses Arabic Medical Tourism e-Magazine healthandtour.com. The E-magazine “مجلة الصحة والسياحة” provides a wide scope of medical tourism information to healthcare travellers to find a safe, effective and cost-saving solution for their medical and healthcare needs. In addition to running E-Magazine, Dr. Mohammad Afzal also serves as Delhi-state coordinator in Foundation of Healthcare and Wellness Promotion focused on bringing India’s Healthcare closer to the world and smoothen world’s access to Indian Healthcare.