Everything You Need To Know About Arteriovenous Malformation Treatment

Arteriovenous Malformation is a common anorectal health condition that is estimated to affect 8.6 per 1,00,000 people across the global. But not many people are aware of the condition, it's treatment options, and the complications that can arise if the treatment is delayed. Here, we intend to help you understand Everything about arteriovenous malformation- what arteriovenous malformation is, how arteriovenous malformation can be diagnosed and treated, who are the best doctors for arteriovenous malformation treatment, and a lot more.

Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui

Review By Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui
Award-winning CEO of Marlin Medical Assistance Pvt. Ltd

Mar 4, 2024

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Table Of Index

What is Arteriovenous Malformation

What is arteriovenous malformations?

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal, snarled tangles of blood vessels that cause multiple irregular connections between your arteries and veins. These malformations most often occur in the spinal cord and in any part of your brain or on its surface but can develop elsewhere in the body.

Normally, arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart to the body's cells, organs, and tissues; veins retu blood with less oxygen to the lungs and heart. But in an AVMs, the absence of capillaries—a network of small blood vessels that connect arteries to veins and deliver oxygen to cells—creates a shortcut for blood to pass directly from arteries to veins and bypass tissue, which can lead to tissue damage and the death of nerve cells and other cells. Over time, some AVMs get progressively larger as the amount of blood flow increases.

How is arteriovenous malformations caused?

An arteriovenous malformation can develop anywhere in the body but common locations include the brain and spinal cord — though overall, brain AVMs are rare. The cause of brain AVMs isn't clear. Most people are bo with them, but they can form later in life. Rarely, they can be passed down among families.

Type of Disease

Brain AVM(Cerebral AVM): When an AVM occurs inthe brain, it can lead to various neurological symptoms and complications, including seizures, headaches, neurological deficits, hemorrhagic strokes.Spinal Cord AVM: AVMs in the spinal cord can cause symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, tingling pain.Hepatic AVM: AVMs in the liver can disrupt normal liver function, potentially leading to liver disease, cirrhosis, or other liver-related complications.

Causes and Symptoms

Causes

  • Trauma to the anal tissues
  • Infection in the anal gland
  • Radiation from cancer treatment
  • Crohn's disease
  • Sexually transmitted disease
  • Tuberculosis
  • Diverticulitis
  • Cancer

Symptoms

  • Pain and swelling around the anus
  • Frequent anal abscesses
  • Foul-smelling bloody drainage from anal opening
  • Bleeding along with stool
  • Pain during bowel movements
  • Fever, chills and fatigue

Diagnosis

In most cases of arteriovenous malformation, the anorectal specialist is able to disgnose it just through a physical examination. In case the condition of the arteriovenous malformation is server, the doctor might require to do an examination of your retu and anal canal. The commonly preformed tests to diagnose arteriovenous malformation are:

Digital Examination- In this test, the arteriovenous specialist inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to check if there any kind of abnormal growths.

Visual Inspection- The proctologist or the anorectal surgeon might examine the lower rectum using a proctoscope, an or a sigmoidoscope. Using any of these devices, the doctor will carefully examine the lining of your arteriovenous malformation.

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Risk & Complications

Like any other Surgical treatments, there are potential risks and complications associated with surgery of arteriovenous malformation too. Common cpmplications may include:

Infection-When incisions are made in the skin, every surgery carries some risk of infection. The same is with the procedure of fistulectomy. In certain case. there is a high possibility that the arteriovenous might spread throughout the body and cause systemic infection. In case of infection from anal fistula, the doctor maight prescribe antibiotics. If the infection is too serve, hte patient might even require to get admitted to a hospital and undergo intravenous administration of antibiotics.

Bowel incontinence- If the arteriovenous surgery is not perfromed by an expert anorectal surgeon, there are chances that the anal sphincter muscles may get damaged. The anal sphincter muscles are responsive of keeping the anus and controlling the bowel movements. In any case, if the sphincter muscles are damaged. the strength of the anal muscles are compromised whick may cause leakage of feces. This condition is known as bowel incontinence. Bowel incontinence is estimated of affect 3-7 percent of the total patients who udergo anal fistula surgery.

Arteriovenous Malformation recurrence- An estimated 7-21 percent of patients who have undergoes surgery for anal fistula suffer form recurrence of arteriovenous malformation after surgery. The chances of recurrence is ten highest in case of treatment of arteriovenous malformation through fibrin glue.

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Best Doctors for Arteriovenous Malformation Treatment

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Dr. Prasad Rao Voleti
41+ Yrs. Exp.FRCP, MRCP, MD, MBBSDirector of Internal Medicine
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Dr. Z.S. Meharwal
30+ Yrs. Exp.MBBS, MS (General Surgery & M.Ch (Cardiothoracic Surgery)Executive Director of Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery

Best Hospitals for Arteriovenous Malformation Treatment

Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi
Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi
Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi

Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi Mathura Road New Delhi 110076 India

Medanta the Medicity
Medanta the Medicity
Medanta the Medicity

Medanta the Medicity Medanta The Medicity, Sec-38 Gurugram, Haryana 122001, India

Prevention of anal fistula

Prevention of arteriovenous malformation

Here are some of tips that can help you prevent arteriovenous malformation:

Consuming high-fibre diet- One the the easiest ways to prevent arteriovenous malformation is to prevent passing of hard stools. To prevent hard bowel movements, the best thing to do is stock up your diet with fiber-rich food. If you want to avoid getting arteriovenous malformation, it is crucial to eat at least 20-30 grams of fiber per day. Some food rich in fiber are: whole grains, oatmeal, and brown rice Beans and lentils Vegitable and Brussel sprouts Fruits such as bananas, apples, pears, and berries

Drink sufficent Water- along with a fiber-rich diet is very important for the prevention of any anorectal disease. Drink enough water prevents constipation and hard stools which in tu decreases the need to strain while padding the bowel movement. To prevent arteriovenous malformation, drinking enough water throughout the day is extremely important. It will help your digestive system function properly.

Maintain cleanliness and deyness in your anal region- arteriovenous malformation often forms as aresult of clog and blockages in the anal canal. Long trem accumulation of dirt and debris leads to the formation ofarteriovenous malformation. To prevent this, it in curcial to clean the anal area every time you pass a bowel movement. Don't leave the area wet after cleaning, pat it well and dry so that there's no bacteria or infection.

Don't strain while passing stool- Do not strain while making bowel movements. Straining can make the condition of the anal skin worse and lead the arteriovenous malformation to aggravate in nature. It is equally important to take care that you don't spend long hour sitting on the toilet seat. The longer you sit on the toilet seat, the more you arelikely to strain while making your bowel movements worse.

Regular exercise- Almost all anorectal diseases have a direct relation with physical activities and how you keep your body active. Staying physically active keeps the colon active and functions in a regular manner. But the being said, you should know which exercise is good for you.

Treatment Option

In most cases of arteriovenous malformation, the anorectal specialist is able to disgnose it just through a physical examination. In case the condition of the arteriovenous malformation is server, the doctor might require to do an examination of your retu and anal canal. The commonly preformed tests to diagnose arteriovenous malformation are:

Digital Examination- In this test, the arteriovenous specialist inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to check if there any kind of abnormal growths.

Visual Inspection- The proctologist or the anorectal surgeon might examine the lower rectum using a proctoscope, an or a sigmoidoscope. Using any of these devices, the doctor will carefully examine the lining of your anal fistula.

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Cost of the treatment

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Recovery

The healing capacity of every person is different and hence the timeline of recovery after arteriovenous malformation surgery varies for all. In most cases, recovery after open surgery for arteriovenous malformation takes around 2-3 months and complete recovery after laser surgery takes 1 month to 45 days.

Recovery Tips and Recommendation after Arteriovenous Malformation Surgery

For at least 1 month after arteriovenous malformation surgery, the patient needs to follow the recovery tips and recommendations by the dotcot. It is advisable that the patient refrains from doing anything that puts strain on the surgical site. The patient should not eat anything too oily and spicy and consume only fiber-rich food. The patient should keep the surgical area free of any infection and take regular sitz baths.

Recovery
Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui

Written by

Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui

Award-winning CEO of Marlin Medical Assistance Pvt. Ltd

Dr. Mohammad Afzal Siddiqui is an award-winning CEO of Marlin Medical Assistance Pvt. Ltd., a professionally managed medical tourism holding company and the active Director of Alshifa Healthcare Services Pvt. Ltd., a full-service medical tourism aggregation agency servicing JCI and NABH/ NABL accredited Hospitals across the country’s 5 locations.

In addition to Marlin, Alshifa also includes Media Group, which houses Arabic Medical Tourism e-Magazine healthandtour.com. The E-magazine “مجلة الصحة والسياحة” provides a wide scope of medical tourism information to healthcare travellers to find a safe, effective and cost-saving solution for their medical and healthcare needs. In addition to running E-Magazine, Dr. Mohammad Afzal also serves as Delhi-state coordinator in Foundation of Healthcare and Wellness Promotion focused on bringing India’s Healthcare closer to the world and smoothen world’s access to Indian Healthcare.

Frequently Asked Questions About Arteriovenous Malformation

If you experience a sudden, severe headache (“worst in my life”), seizures, weakness in your arms or legs, vision problems, balance problems or memory and attention problems, call 911. These are signs of a life-threatening emergency. This could be a brain bleed.

No. Some arteriovenous malformations never cause a bleed and may not even cause symptoms or any health problems your entire life. Some are only discovered during an imaging test for another reason or after death during an autopsy.
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