colorectal Cancer Treatment India.

January 29, 2020

What is colorectal cancer?

Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the rectum or colon. Both of these organs are in the lower portion of your digestive system. The colon is also known as the large intestine. The rectum is at the end of the colon.

The cancer society estimates 1 in 22 men and 1 in 24 women will develop colorectal cancer during their lifetime.

Your doctor may use staging as a guideline to figure out how far along the cancer is. It’s important for your doctor to know the stage of the cancer so they can come up with the best treatment plan for you and give you an estimate of your long-term outlook.

Stage 1 colorectal cancer is the earliest stage. The stages progress up to stage 4, which is the most advanced stage. Here are the stages of colorectal cancer:

  • Stage 1. The cancer has penetrated the lining, or mucosa, of the colon or rectum but hasn’t spread to the organ walls.
  • Stage 2. The cancer has spread to the walls of the colon or rectum but hasn’t affected the lymph nodes or nearby tissues yet.
  • Stage 3. The cancer has moved to the lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body yet. Usually, one to three lymph nodes are involved at this stage.
  • Stage 4. The cancer has spread to other distant organs, such as the liver or lungs.

What are the symptoms of colorectal cancer?

Colorectal cancer may not present any symptoms, especially in the early stages. If you do experience symptoms during the early stages, they may include:

  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • changes in stool color
  • changes in stool shape, such as narrowed stool
  • blood in the stool
  • bleeding from the rectum
  • excessive gas
  • abdominal cramps
  • abdominal pain

If you notice any of these symptoms, make an appointment with your doctor to discuss getting a colon cancer screening.

Stage 3 or 4 symptoms (late stage symptoms):

Colorectal cancer symptoms are more noticeable in the late stages (stages 3 and 4). In addition to the above symptoms, you might also experience:

  • excessive fatigue
  • unexplained weakness
  • unintentional weight loss
  • changes in your stool that last longer than a month
  • feeling like your bowels don’t completely empty
  • vomiting

If colon cancer spreads to other parts of your body, you may also experience:

• Jaundice (yellow eyes and skin)
• swelling in hands or feet
• breathing difficulties
• chronic headaches
• blurry vision
• bone fractures

Types of colorectal cancer:

While colorectal cancer sounds clear-cut, there’s actually more than one type of cancer. Such differences have to do with the types of cells that turn cancerous as well as where they form.

The most common type of colon cancer starts from adenocarcinoma. According to the cancer society, adenocarcinomas make up 96 percent of all colon cancer cases. Unless your doctor specifies otherwise, your colon cancer is likely this type. Adenocarcinomas form within mucus cells in either the colon or rectum.

Less commonly, colorectal cancers are caused from other types of tumors, such as:

  • lymphomas, which can form in lymph nodes or in the colon first
  • carcinoids, which start in hormone-making cells within your intestines
  • sarcomas, which form in soft tissues such as muscles in the colon
  • gastrointestinal stromal tumors, which can start off as benign and then become cancerous (These usually form in the digestive tract, but rarely in the colon.)

What causes colorectal cancer?

Researchers are still studying the causes of colorectal cancer. While there’s a growing list of risk factors, they act alone or in combination to increase one’s risk for developing colorectal cancer.

Precancerous growths

Abnormal cells accumulate in the lining of the colon, forming polyps. These are small, benign growths. Removing these growths through surgery is a common preventive method. Untreated polyps can become cancerous.

Gene mutations

Sometimes colorectal cancer occurs in family members. This is due to a gene mutation that passes from parent to child. These mutations don’t guarantee you’ll develop colorectal cancer, but they do increase your chances.

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