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Bone Marrow Transplant (Stem cell transplant): Leukemia

November 21, 2019

Bone-marrow-transplant

Bone marrow transplant is a curative line of actions performed to restore bone marrow that
has been defiled by disease, infection, or chemotherapy. This process demands transplanting
blood stem cells, which travel to the bone marrow where they construct new blood cells and
aid the development of new marrow.
Bone marrow is the elastic, fatty tissue interior of your bones. It generates the following
constituents of the blood:

 red blood cells, they carry oxygen and dietary throughout the body
 white blood cells, which protect from infection
 platelets, which controls the formation of blood clots
Bone marrow also contains unformed blood-forming stem cells known as hematopoietic stem
cells or HSCs. Most cells are already modified and can only make a replica of themselves.
However, these stem cells are unspecialized, meaning they have the ability to multiply
through cell division and either remain stem cells or differentiate and mature into many
different kinds of blood cells. The HSC found in the bone marrow will construct new blood
cells for the whole of your life.

A bone marrow transplant re-store your harmed stem cells with healthy cells. This assist your
body to make enough white blood cells, platelets, or red blood cells to circumvent infections,
bleeding disorders, or anemia.
Healthy stem cells can forge from a donor, or they can be conceded from your own body. In
these cases, stem cells can be gathered, or grown, before you begin chemotherapy or
radiation therapy. Those healthy cells are then accumulated and used in transplantation.

Types of Stem Cell Transplantation

The main types of SCT are:
 Autologous transplantation employs the patient’s own stem cells. These cells are
removed, treated and returned to his or her own body after a conditioning regimen.
Allogenic transplantation uses stem cells from a donor. A donor may be a family
member or someone who is not related to the patient.
o Reduced intensity stem cell transplantation Like allogeneic transplant, the
stem cells are from a healthy person (the donor), but the chemotherapy given
is less intensive.

 A syngeneic transplantation is much less common. Syngeneic transplantation is unusual for
the simple reason that it’s only used on alike twins. In addition, the donor twin and the
beneficiary twin must have similar genetic makeup and tissue type.

Reason for stem cell transplant:

Bone marrow transplant is done to:
 Safely grant treatment of your condition with high doses of chemotherapy or radiation
by replacing or rescuing the bone marrow is being damaged by treatment
 Replace diseased or defaced marrow with current stem cells
 Provided current stem cells, which aids to kill cancer cells directly
Bone marrow transplants aids to ease people with a variety of both cancerous (malignant) and
noncancerous (benign) diseases, including:
 Acute leukemia
 Adrenoleukodystrophy
 Aplastic anemia
 Bone marrow failure syndromes
 Chronic leukemia
 Hemoglobinopathies
 Hodgkin’s lymphoma
 Immune deficiencies
 Inborn errors of metabolism
 Multiple myeloma
 Myelodysplastic syndromes
 Neuroblastoma

 Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
 Plasma cell disorders
 POEMS syndrome
 Primary amyloidosis

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